By René Dugas
"A striking paintings on the way to stay a rfile of the 1st rank for the historian of mechanics." — Louis de Broglie
In this masterful synthesis and summation of the technological know-how of mechanics, Rene Dugas, a number one student and educator on the famed Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, bargains with the evolution of the rules of common mechanics chronologically from their earliest roots in antiquity throughout the heart a long time to the progressive advancements in relativistic mechanics, wave and quantum mechanics of the early twentieth century.
The current quantity is split into 5 components: the 1st treats of the pioneers within the examine of mechanics, from its beginnings as much as and together with the 16th century; the second one part discusses the formation of classical mechanics, together with the enormously inventive and influential paintings of Galileo, Huygens and Newton. The 3rd half is dedicated to the eighteenth century, during which the association of mechanics reveals its climax within the achievements of Euler, d'Alembert and Lagrange. The fourth half is dedicated to classical mechanics after Lagrange. partially 5, the writer undertakes the relativistic revolutions in quantum and wave mechanics.
Writing with nice readability and sweep of imaginative and prescient, M. Dugas follows heavily the guidelines of the good innovators and the texts in their writings. the result's an incredibly actual and target account, specially thorough in its bills of mechanics in antiquity and the center a long time, and the $64000 contributions of Jordanus of Nemore, Jean Buridan, Albert of Saxony, Nicole Oresme, Leonardo da Vinci, and lots of different key figures.
Erudite, complete, replete with penetrating insights, A History of Mechanics is an surprisingly skillful and wide-ranging research that belongs within the library of a person drawn to the heritage of science.
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Title. com Table of Contents Title Page Copyright Page FOREWORD PREFACE PART ONE - THE ORIGINS CHAPTER ONE - HELLENIC SCIENCE CHAPTER TWO - ALEXANDRIAN SOURCES AND ARABIC MANUSCRIPTS CHAPTER THREE - THE XIIIth CENTURY THE SCHOOL OF JORDANUS CHAPTER FOUR - THE XIVth CENTURY THE SCHOOLS OF BURIDAN AND ALBERT OF SAXONY NICOLE ORESME AND THE OXFORD SCHOOL CHAPTER FIVE - XVth AND XVIth CENTURIES THE ITALIAN SCHOOL BLASIUS OF PARMA THE OXFORD TRADITION NICHOLAS OF CUES AND LEONARDO DA VINCI NICHOLAS COPERNICUS THE ITALIAN AND PARISIAN SCHOOLMEN OF THE XVIth CENTURY DOMINIC SOTO AND THE FALL OF BODIES CHAPTER SIX - XVIth CENTURY (Continued) THE ITALIAN SCHOOL OF NICHOLAS TARTAGLIA AND BERNARDINO BALDI CHAPTER SEVEN - XVIth CENTURY (Continued) XVIIth CENTURY PART TWO - THE FORMATION OF CLASSICAL MECHANICS CHAPTER ONE - STEVIN’S STATICS SOLOMON OF CAUX CHAPTER TWO - GALILEO AND TORRICELLI CHAPTER THREE - MERSENNE (1588-1648) AS AN INTERNATIONAL GO-BETWEEN IN MECHANICS ROBERVAL (1602-1675) CHAPTER FOUR - DESCARTES’ MECHANICS PASCAL’S HYDROSTATICS CHAPTER FIVE - THE LAWS OF IMPACT (WALLIS, WREN, HUYGHENS, MARIOTTE) THE MECHANICS OF HUYGHENS (1629-1697) CHAPTER SIX - NEWTON (1642-1727) CHAPTER SEVEN - LEIBNIZ AND LIVING FORCE CHAPTER EIGHT - THE FRENCH - ITALIAN SCHOOL OF ZACCHI AND VARIGNON PART THREE - THE ORGANISATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRINCIPLES OF CLASSICAL MECHANICS IN THE XVIIIth CENTURY CHAPTER ONE - JEAN BERNOULLI AND THE PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK (1717) DANIEL BERNOULLI AND THE COMPOSITION OF FORCES (1726) CHAPTER TWO - THE CONTROVERSY ABOUT LIVING FORCES CHAPTER THREE - EULER AND THE MECHANICS OF A PARTICLE (1736) CHAPTER FOUR - JACQUES BERNOULLI AND THE CENTRE OF OSCILLATION (1703) D‘ALEMBERT’S TREATISE ON DYNAMICS (1743) CHAPTER FIVE - THE PRINCIPLE OF LEAST ACTION CHAPTER SIX - EULER AND THE MECHANICS OF SOLID BODIES (1760) CHAPTER SEVEN - CLAIRAUT AND THE FUNDAMENTAL LAW OF HYDROSTATICS CHAPTER EIGHT - DANIEL BERNOULLI’S HYDRODYNAMICS D’ALEMBERT AND THE RESISTANCE OF FLUIDS EULER’S HYDRODYNAMICAL EQUATIONS BORDA AND THE LOSSES OF KINETIC ENERGY IN FLUIDS CHAPTER NINE - EXPERIMENTS ON THE RESISTANCE OF FLUIDS (BORDA, BOSSUT, DU BUAT) COULOMB AND THE LAWS OF FRICTION CHAPTER TEN - LAZARE CARNOT’S MECHANICS CHAPTER ELEVEN - THE “MÉCANIQUE ANALYTIQUE” OF LAGRANGE PART FOUR - SOME CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF THE EVOLUTION OF CLASSICAL MECHANICS AFTER LAGRANGE FOREWORD CHAPTER ONE - LAPLACE’S MECHANICS (1799) CHAPTER TWO - FOURIER AND THE PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORKS (1798) CHAPTER THREE - THE PRINCIPLE OF LEAST CONSTRAINT (1829) CHAPTER FOUR - RELATIVE MOTION RETURN TO A PRINCIPLE OF CLAIRAUT CORIOLIS’ THEOREMS FOUCAULT’S EXPERIMENTS CHAPTER FIVE - POISSON’S THEOREM (1809) CHAPTER SIX - ANALYTICAL DYNAMICS IN THE SENSE OF HAMILTON AND JACOBI CHAPTER SEVEN - NAVIER’S EQUATIONS CHAPTER EIGHT - CAUCHY AND THE FINITE DEFORMATION OF CONTINUOUS MEDIA CHAPTER NINE - HUGONIOT AND THE PROPAGATION OF MOTION IN CONTINUOUS MEDIA CHAPTER TEN - HELMHOLTZ AND THE ENERGETIC THESIS DISCUSSION OF THE NEWTONIAN PRINCIPLES (SAINT-VENANT, REECH, KIRCHHOFF, MACH, HERTZ, POINCARÉ, PAINLEVÉ, DUHEM) PART FIVE - THE PRINCIPLES OF THE MODERN PHYSICAL THEORIES OF MECHANICS CHAPTER ONE - SPECIAL RELATIVITY CHAPTER TWO - GENERALISED RELATIVITY CHAPTER THREE - THE DYNAMICS OF QUANTA IN BOHR’S SENSE CHAPTER FOUR - WAVE MECHANICS IN THE SENSE OF LOUIS DE BROGLIE AND SCHRÖDINGER CHAPTER FIVE - QUANTUM MECHANICS IN THE SENSE OF HEISENBERG AND DIRAC CHAPTER SIX - DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRINCIPLES OF QUANTUM MECHANICS CHAPTER SEVEN - DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF QUANTUM MECHANICS SOME REMARKS BY WAY OF A GENERAL CONCLUSION NOTES INDEX FOREWORD The history of mechanics is one of the most important branches of the history of science.
The original greek version remains unknown, and the question of whether karaston (in Arabic—karstûn) refers merely to the roman balance or to the name of the greek geometer Charistion (a contemporary of Philon of Byzantium in the IInd Century B. ) has been the subject of much scholarly debate. We shall follow Duhem 16 in summarising the theory of the roman balance which is found in Liber Charastonis. Fig. 8 A heavy homogeneous cylindrical beam ab whose arms ag and bg are unequal may be maintained in a horizontal position by means of a weight e hung from the end of the shorter arm ag.
But KH is to LH as B is to A. Therefore, by equality, the length KH is to the length N as B is to Z. Then B is as many times greater than Z as KH is a multiple of N. But it has been arranged that A is also a multiple of Z. Therefore Z is a common measure of A and B. Consequently, if LH is divided into segments each equal to N, and A into segments each equal to Z, A will contain as many segments equal to Z as LH contains segments equal to N. Therefore, if a magnitude equal to Z is applied to each segment of LH in such a way that its centre of gravity is at the centre of the segment, all the magnitudes 7 will be equal to A.
A History of Mechanics by René Dugas