By Charles E. Taylor, Jonathan T. Kwan
This ebook had its genesis in a symposium on gasoline hydrates provided on the 2003 Spring nationwide assembly of the yankee Institute of Chemical Engineers. The symposium consisted of twenty papers provided in 4 classes over days. extra visitor authors have been invited to supply continuity and canopy issues now not addressed in the course of the symposium. gasoline hydrates are a different type of chemical substances the place molecules of 1 compound (the visitor fabric) are enclosed, with out bonding chemically, inside an open reliable lattice composed of one other compound (the host material). a majority of these configurations are referred to as clathrates. The visitor molecules, u- best friend gases, are of a suitable measurement such that they healthy in the cage shaped by means of the host fabric. Commonexamples of gasoline hydrates are carbon dioxide/water and methane/water clathrates. At ordinary strain and temperature, methane hydrate includes by means of quantity a hundred and eighty instances as a lot methane as hydrate. the USA Geological Survey (USGS) has anticipated that there's extra natural carbon c- tained as methane hydrate than all other kinds of fossil fuels mixed. in truth, methane hydrates may supply a fresh resource of strength for numerous centuries. Clathrate compounds have been first came upon within the early 1800s whilst Humphrey Davy and Michael Faraday have been experimenting with chlorine-water combinations.
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Extra info for Advances in the Study of Gas Hydrates
Model is because the total reaction rate was assumed proportional to the second moment of the particle size distribution, which in effect determines the total surface area of the particles. This area increases as the particles grow and therefore the reaction rate increases with time. Also, Englezos, et al. neglected the interactions between hydrate particles in the population mass balance, assuming that the particles would always be small in comparison to the medium containing them. However, the number of particles and their size will grow and eventually the particles will interact with each other.
Rather, its value is determined by means of the experimental data. The departure from equilibrium can be expressed by either or These ratios will be equal to unity when equilibrium is attained. The ratio can be estimated using an equation of state for the gas phase. The water vapor pressure can be neglected and the gas phase is assumed pure methane. Further, can be estimated using an equation of state for the liquid system, but the mole fraction of the gas in the liquid cannot be determined at non-equilibrium conditions.
3. PHYSICAL MECHANISMS AND MATHEMATICAL MODEL In decomposition by the depressurization method three mechanisms of fluid flow, heat transfer and intrinsic decomposition of hydrates are involved. The interplay of these mechanisms is schematically shown in Figures 2 and 3, which depict the pressure and temperatures at different locations, along with the important driving forces. Let us consider two modes of production, constant rate and constant pressure. In constant rate production, bottomhole pressure reduces with time until it eventually falls below the equilibrium pressure of the hydrate at In constant pressure production, the bottomhole pressure needs to be below the equilibrium pressure of the hydrate at for hydrate to decompose.
Advances in the Study of Gas Hydrates by Charles E. Taylor, Jonathan T. Kwan