By David G. Andrews
A quantitative advent to the Earth's surroundings for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate scholars, with an emphasis on underlying actual rules. This version has been introduced thoroughly up to date, and now encompasses a new bankruptcy at the physics of weather switch which builds upon fabric brought in previous chapters, giving the coed a vast realizing of a few of the actual suggestions underlying this most crucial and topical topic. unlike many different books on atmospheric technological know-how, the emphasis is at the underlying physics. Atmospheric functions are constructed almost always within the difficulties given on the finish of every bankruptcy. The e-book is a vital source for all scholars of atmospheric physics as a part of an atmospheric technology, meteorology, physics, Earth technology, planetary technology, or utilized arithmetic path.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics, Second Edition
At saturation, the mixing ratio μ equals the saturation mixing ratio μs (T, p). 44) 9 Note that δμ , as is usual for a small change, is deﬁned as an increase in μ ; therefore −δμ is a decrease s s s of μs . 38 Atmospheric thermodynamics is given to the parcel. The liquid water is assumed to fall out of the parcel and take no further part in its heat balance: this is an irreversible process and it also implies a loss of heat from the parcel. Hence the parcel undergoes a non-adiabatic (and indeed a nonadiathermal) change.
10) is the mean molecular mass for the sample. 8) we have νi = ni pi = . 11) Note that the two mixing ratios are related by μi = mi νi . m Another measure of the concentration of an atmospheric gas is the number density (the number of molecules of the gas per unit volume), ni /V . If we wish to follow the motion of the sample of air, the number density may change either through changes of the volume V of the sample or through changes of ni resulting from chemical reactions. For many purposes the mass and volume mixing ratios are more convenient measures of concentration when the transport of chemicals is being studied, since they are affected not by volume changes but only by chemical production or loss.
At this transition, the vapour is saturated,7 that is, in equilibrium with the liquid. The rates of evaporation and condensation are equal, with as many molecules escaping from unit area of the liquid surface per unit time as return. 5), which indicates the temperature variation of the pressure at which the phase transition takes place (the equilibrium vapour pressure or the saturation vapour pressure, SVP). 35) where δS is the entropy gained as unit mass of water changes from liquid to vapour (it is positive, since the vapour exhibits greater disorder than does the liquid state), δV is the increase of volume as unit mass changes from liquid to vapour (it is also positive) and L is the latent heat of vaporization per unit mass (also called the speciﬁc enthalpy of vaporization), given by L = T δS.
An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics, Second Edition by David G. Andrews