New PDF release: An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry

By Julian E. Andrews, Peter Brimblecombe, Tim D. Jickells, Peter S. Liss, Brian Reid

ISBN-10: 0632059052

ISBN-13: 9780632059058

This introductory textual content explains the basics of the chemistry of the ordinary surroundings and the consequences of mankind's actions at the earth's chemical structures. keeps an emphasis on describing how average geochemical techniques function over various scales in time and area, and the way the results of human perturbation should be measured. themes diversity from prevalent international concerns equivalent to atmospheric pollutants and its impression on worldwide warming and ozone destruction, to microbiological procedures that reason pollutants of consuming water deltas. comprises sections and knowledge containers that specify the fundamental chemistry underpinning the topic coated. every one bankruptcy includes a record of extra analyzing at the topic quarter. up-to-date case experiences. No previous chemistry wisdom required. compatible for introductory point classes.

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It soon becomes clear, however, that the chemical composition of this vast water reservoir is controlled by a host of other physical, biological and chemical processes. Chapter 7 examines environmental chemistry on a global scale, integrating information from earlier chapters and, in particular, focusing on the influence of humans on global chemical processes. The short-term carbon and sulphur cycles are examples of natural chemical cycles perturbed by human activities. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are used as examples of exotic chemicals that persist for years to decades in soils or sediments and for several days in the atmosphere.

In the last few hundred years, the activities of humans have perturbed both these and other natural cycles. Such anthropogenic changes to natural cycles essentially mimic and in some cases enhance or speed up what nature does anyway. In contrast to the situation for exotic chemicals described earlier, changes to natural cycles should be easier to predict, since the process is one of enhancement of what already occurs, rather than addition of something completely new. Thus, knowledge of how a natural system works now and has done in the past should be helpful in predicting the effects of human-induced changes.

Eqn. 1 In this representation of bonding, the electrons are shown by dots. In reality the bonding electrons are smeared out over the entire molecules, but their most probable position is between the nuclei. The bond is shown as the two electrons between the atoms. The bond is created from the two electrons shared between the atoms. : .. :Ar .. : 20 Chapter Two Thus bond formation can be envisaged as a result of attaining noble-gas-type structures that have particularly stable configurations of electrons.

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An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry by Julian E. Andrews, Peter Brimblecombe, Tim D. Jickells, Peter S. Liss, Brian Reid

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